Preface by Ellen Goldberg, Head of Integrity Education

Since 2003, we have worked at providing citizen-engaged promotion of integrity in post-conflict countries, teaching integrity to schoolteachers and academics, as well as training others, such as public officials, private sector actors and civil society.  To support our teaching and training, we prepared and uploaded this Integrity Glossary in 2014.

We want to thank the contributors to the glossary, including Richard Holloway, who drafted much of the material, Joy Saunders (former CEO of Integrity Action) and Majd Dowani for her administrative support.  Integrity Action staff and members of our Integrity Education Network also made contributions and comments, the latter sharing their local perspectives and challenges as they work on strengthening integrity within their own countries.

The Integrity Glossary was prepared for the level of university students and young professionals, although many younger (and older) learners are using it. Integrity Action is very proud that the glossary is quite popular.

We also encourage you to contact us with suggestions, improvements or additions to further enrich the glossary, so that it becomes more accessible and user-friendly to those who are anxious to build pro-integrity societies.

Ellen Goldberg


Abuse (v): To misuse one's power and duty (e.g., related to a contract, a function or an office). 
Abuse (n): Improper use or treatment of an entity or person, often to unfairly or improperly gain benefit. 
Abuse of Function (n): Failure to perform or the performance of a function by an agent (public officer, private agent) aimed at receiving an undue advantage.
Abuse of Power (n): The commission of an unlawful act, done in an official capacity, which negatively affects the proper performance of official duties. 
Access to Information: The ability of citizens to easily and legitimately get access to information stored by others (especially government), when there is no specific prohibition in law preventing such access. This access is often supported by a 'Freedom of Information Law'. 
Accountability: One of the main elements of Integrity: Enabling stakeholders to check that you do what you say you do or are supposed to do. The state of being accountable, liable, or answerable; considered a requirement for public officials, for officers and directors of companies, for managers and employees. For example, public officials, managers and other professionals are responsible to shareholders, clients, customers, patients, the general public, etc. Moreover, other groups also can be held accountable, such as students being accountable to their teachers, as well as teachers being accountable to their students.  Within a National Integrity System, we can distinguish between Horizontal, Vertical and Diagonal Accountability. All three kinds of accountability are essential to making a National Integrity System function properly – at least in an open democratic society. In fact, the test of the openness of a society is partly how well these three forms of accountability operate. Accountability often requires transparency.
Action Learning: Action learning is an educational process whereby people work and learn by tackling real issues and reflecting on their actions. Learners acquire knowledge through actions and practice rather than through traditional instruction (i.e., lectures, reading, etc.). Action learning goes beyond theoretical problem solving. It involves testing principles in real-life situations outside the classroom to see whether they deliver satisfactory results, and re-assessing the principles in the light of the results. Action learning often requires the use of tools and approaches that close the loop.
Activist: Someone who is seriously and passionately involved in and/or advocating for a particular cause (often social or political) by mobilising support for issues, participating in campaigns, running for public office, etc.
Administrative Accountability: The responsibility of public officials who deal with administrative issues and law to follow all guidelines and procedures and be answerable to their stakeholders while maintaining integrity and adherence to laws and regulations.
Administrative Corruption: Corruption that interferes with the administrative duties of public officials and prevents them from carrying out their duties with integrity. This is one type of spoiler that can prevent governance reforms.
Administrative Due Process: Adherence to laws, rules and regulations to ensure that public officials are carrying out their duties as set out in written guidelines, so that government agencies cannot ignore their public's rights, exercise arbitrary judgment, or abuse government authority.
Administrative Ethics: A term referring to the ethics applied to the public administration. 
Affective Learning: One of three main types of learning as identified by Benjamin Bloom, the others being Cognitive and Behavioural or Psychomotor Learning. Affective learning is where the learner, for example, has the opportunity to interact with someone who has directly suffered from corruption or maladministration and understands with feeling and/or emotion what that has meant in their lives. It may also be learning something from a story, film, situation or material (in any media) that generates an emotional response.
Agency Costs: Costs arising out of principal-agent relationships when an agent is paid for acting on behalf of its principal. These costs serve as an incentive for the agent and in order to align the agent's interests with the interests of the principal. Examples include compensation, bonuses, stock options, etc. 
Agency Problem: A conflict of interest  arising out of the principal-agent relationship when an agent's interests diverge from the interests of its principal. 
Agency Theory: This theory is concerned with the agency problems and relationships between principals and agents. 
Agent: One who acts for or on behalf of another.  
Aggrieved: Angry or unhappy because of unjust treatment or perceived unjust treatment.
Alignment:  Consistency between what an organisation intends and/or says it is going to do and what it actually does. It also denotes consistency between the behaviours that an organisation considers to be important and the way it actually behaves. It can be described as “organisational wholeness”, in the sense of an organisation’s collective focus on a common purpose: the constituent parts of your organisation “line up” as a whole, focused on its goals. Management and staff demonstrate behaviour that encourages the organisation to flourish. It therefore also denotes the extent to which your organisation coordinates its activities, so that its various constituent elements present a common, seamless front to others and work together to implement its strategy and achieve its purpose.
Anti-Corruption Agency: An agency that specialises in fighting corruption; it can be part of the police or law enforcement bodies, but can alternatively be independent from some or all public bodies
Apolitical: Lacking interest in politics and demonstrating an approach that includes no involvement in voting or other political behaviours, and nonaffiliation with any political parties.
Appeal: A formal question as to the correctness of a ruling by a presiding officer.
Appoint: To assign or designate someone a job.
Assumptions: In this context, making decisions based on an accepted truth when there is no evidence.  This is problematic.  Engaging with Integrity should be evidence-based when possible.
Audit: An impartial inspection, assessment and verification of financial statements, accounts and financial situation in general of an individual or an organisation. 
Bias: Favouring one person or thing over another in a way that would be considered unfair. 
Benchmarking: The term refers to making an evaluation of one organisation's performance or operation against best standards or best practices  set in the same sector.
Best Practice: A technique or methodology that, through experience and research, has reliably led to a desired or optimum result. A practice that is most appropriate and transparent under the circumstances, which is considered acceptable within an organisation or sector.
Beyond the Call of Duty: Doing more than is required.
Black List (n): A list of organisations - often suppliers of goods and services - that have been noted as having behaved without integrity in the past, and thus should not be allowed to provide goods and services in the future. (to blacklist (v) – to put organisations on such a list). 
Blame: To find fault with someone as responsible for a situation or event.
Blat: A Russian term that comprises personal networks, often with public officials, that 'grease' the way to obtaining goods, services or favours.
Board of Trustees: An appointed or elected board that promotes and safeguards the affairs of a public or private organisation (e.g., a foundation or charity).
Bottom-Up Approach: The engagement of people in a society to lead reform and change, often – but not always – in collaboration with government.  A leadership style of an organisation where employees are motivated to participate in the process of decision making  and organisational life in general.
Boycott: To withdraw from social or commercial relations as punishment or protest, such as refusal to purchase items or partake in social activities. 
Bribery: The act of offering, agreeing to, giving or receiving an undue advantage - tangible (e.g., money) and/or intangible (e.g., service) - in exchange for performing or abstaining from performing an official action, or with an intention to influence a person of authority in the discharge of his/her functions. 
Bribe Payers Index: An index developed by Transparency International to assess the likelihood of exporting companies from the world's biggest economies getting involved in corruption abroad. It is published regularly since 1999. 
Bureaucracy: A system of managing government where most of the important decisions are made by non-elected officials (i.e., professional bureaucrats), often accompanied by complex administrative procedures.
Case Story: A learning tool in the form of a story – often demonstrating a success or failure - illustrating a topic that concerns a student or learner, which describes what took place, and allows students to reflect and analyse the different steps taken, and the different results obtained. Typically students are asked to relive the story presented, stop it at different points, and are asked to reflect and answer questions. 
Case Study: A case study for teaching relays a real or fictitious story about an organisation or person, the study of which provides various opportunities for developing analytical skills and learning.  A case study often leads up to a decision-point or crisis situation that requires the students to formulate a decision, solution or plan of action. Case studies are often used at business schools and schools of public policy and public administration. Age-appropriate case studies can be used with secondary school students, as well as adults.
Checks and Balances: Rules and processes that comprise an appropriate system and environment so that no one person or unit is solely in charge of any business unit, and that each person or unit has someone else to check on each facet for accuracy, legality, etc.
Citizen Engagement: a variation on Citizen Participation, this describes a set of policies that make it easy for citizens to engage with government. The World Bank in its 2014 Citizen Engagement Policy distinguishes between four main types: citizens engaged through (a) complaints, (b) monitoring), (c) suggestions and (d) satisfaction. The participation agenda requires buy-in from the principal. Citizen engagement frameworks recognise that this will not always be possible. 
Citizen Monitoring with an Integrity Approach: Activities whereby communities are identified through participatory processes to engage citizens and collect data on the accountability, transparency and effectiveness of development projects and service delivery in their communities.  The data are then used to identify problems and for monitors and others to assist in proposing and implementing effective solutions, after which feedback is given to all those involved.
Citizen Participation: The involvement of citizens in a wide range of administrative and policy-making activities, including the determination of levels of service, budget priorities and the acceptability of physical construction projects, in order to orient government programmes towards community needs, build public support and encourage a sense of cohesiveness within neighbourhoods and societies.*
Civil Society Organisation (CSO): An organisation with members/participants who are citizens or residents, who have organised together to promote issues of community interest.
Clarity: Being clear, coherent, transparent.
Clientelism: Distribution of selected goods and services in exchange for political loyalty and support from constituents or clients.
Closing the Loop: The loop is closed when there is a feedback mechanism that triggers an appropriate response. For example, this could be the case when there is a satisfying response to an access to information request or when there is a resolution to a citizen's complaint, as long as the response is communicated back to the relevant stakeholders. Sometimes this process can be supported by technology (SMS, hotlines, email, websites) but that is not a requirement. Technology just makes it easier to track whether the loop is being closed. 
Code of Conduct: A set of rules outlining the responsibilities of or proper behavioural practices for an individual, party or organisation.
Code of Ethics: A central guide and reference for staff to support day-to-day decision-making based on ethical principles. It is meant to clarify your organisation's vision, mission, values and principles, linking them to standards of professional conduct. It should provide clear guidance on norms of expected individual behaviour and how your organisation operates.
Cognitive Learning: One of three main types of learning as identified by Benjamin Bloom, the others being Affective and Behavioural or Psychomotor Learning. Cognitive learning is based on information, knowledge acquisition and thinking. Related to corruption and integrity, it often includes learning about international and local laws and regulations, history, social attitudes and culture.
Collective Action: A common initiative of different sectors or multiple actors from the same sector that aims to unite efforts in advocating for laws, policies, etc. or to agree on procedures. 
Collusion: Secret or illegal cooperation in order to deceive.
Community Integrity Building (CIB): A process by which communities, often led by Non-Profit Organisations (NPOs), Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) or Civil Society Organisations (CSOs), which have issues or problems with local government and/or its delivery of services, work to get them fixed, most often in a collaborative process with local government. The Community Integrity Building (CIB) process starts with scoping the environment, then continues with conducting joint learning between local government and citizens to function as monitors, gathering evidence, engaging citizens and implementers – business or service deliverers - and closing the loop  by providing feedback to stakeholders and implementing "fixes". The processes, tools and mechanisms of CIB are a subset of social accountability, but emphasise the resolution of problems and closing the loop to the satisfaction of stakeholders. CIB is generally characterised by a high Fix-Rate. 
Competence: One of the main elements of Integrity: Competence denotes an organisation’s ability to meet performance objectives and satisfy the reasonable quality expectations of its internal and external stakeholders. This means having its employees effectively deploying the skills and capabilities required to carry out their duties and achieve the organisation's goals. It conveys a sense of reliability and addresses the “fit” between how the organisation carries on its affairs and what the needs of its stakeholders are. As such, it demonstrates the organisation being “fit for purpose” in the environment in which it operates. It requires a balanced mix of managerial and technical skills and attributes.
Competitive Differentiator: An organisation which tries to position itself competitively by setting its products, services and brands apart from those of its competitors.  Related to integrity, an organisation can distinguish itself separately by being recognised as an organisation that operates with integrity, in contrast to other organisations that may tolerate corrupt practices.
Compliance: Operating by fulfilling the requirements and guidelines of laws, regulations, recommendations, internal policies, procedures and contracts. 
Compliance Approach: A Compliance Approach to reducing corruption and/or solving integrity or ethical challenges is characterised by being:
• Rules-based
• Focused mainly on the application and enforcement of rules and procedures
• Adversarial: naming, shaming, litigation
• Problem-focused
• Less Discretion
• A compliance approach can be led either top-down or bottom-up.
• A compliance approach is in contrast to an integrity approach.
Condescension: An attitude of patronising, superiority or disdain.
Confidentiality: Discretion in keeping information secret. 
Conflict of Interest: A conflict between the private interests and the official responsibility of a person in a position of trust. Note that an official or public servant may have a  conflict of interest, but it does not necessarily disqualify the official from performing his or her duty.  The first step is for the official/public servant to declare the conflict of interest, and his/her colleagues will determine according to established procedures, whether specific action is required to either disqualify or allow the official/public servant to take part in the action required, in concern for lack of impartiality.  For example, if an official in a position of power in an organisation uses that power to promote a relative or friend so that they gain some advantage, this illustrates inappropriate behaviour related to the conflict of interest. However, if the same official simply puts the relative’s or friend's name forward to be handled through existing and legal processes, and removes herself from being involved in the decision-making, it is not necessarily acting inappropriately related to the conflict of interest.
Constituency:  A group of people or organisations who are interested stakeholders or public agencies delivering services, comprising potential supporters.
Constructive Engagement: A stage in the process of Community Integrity Building characterised by sharing findings, identifying solutions, negotiating with project implementers to  apply the solutions - thus fixing the problems - and advocating for change.
Context Sensitivity: The first stage in the process of Community Integrity Building characterised by learning about the context and the stakeholders. This involves stakeholder analysis, community participation and establishing a baseline of information, as well as an analysis of potential spoilers. 
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), also referred to simply as Corporate Responsibility: A company or organisation's obligation to be accountable to all of its stakeholders in all its operations and activities, with the aim of achieving sustainable development not only in the economic, but also in the environmental, social and governance dimensions (these are often referred to as ESG). 
Corruption: The abuse of entrusted or public power for private or personal gains. OR: A situation where a monopoly exists, where the principal has high discretion and behaves without accountability, often represented as Corruption = Monopoly+Discretion-Accountability (Robert Klitgaard). OR: An act done with the intent to give an advantage inconsistent with official duty and the rights of others. It may include bribery, coercion and extortion among other acts. 
Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI): An index of scores of 177 countries (as of 2014), which measure the perceived levels of public sector corruption. It is carried out by Transparency International (TI), is published every year, and is based on perceptions of informed people and other indices identified by TI.
Cover up: An attempt to prevent people from discovering the truth about a wrongdoing.
Critical Insights: Using Critical Insights as an approach to learning comprises questioning widely accepted principles and assumptions in any given field based on empirical evidence. For example: Can corruption be eliminated? What does a zero tolerance policy mean in practice? Why is corruption so difficult to curb? What are its functions? Are there positive aspects of corruption? Why do so many reforms fail? Why do some countries seem to be able to combine high rates of growth with corruption?
Cronyism: Giving an unfair advantage to long-standing friends, especially by appointing them to positions of authority, regardless of their qualifications. Hence, cronyism is contrary in practice to the merit principle.
Cultural Diversity: The variety of human societies or cultures in a specific region or in the world as a whole. 
Decentralisation: Decentralization is commonly regarded as a process through which powers, functions, responsibilities and resources are transferred from central to local governments and/or to other decentralized entities. In practical terms, decentralization is a process of striking a balance between the claims of the periphery and the demands of the centre. Decentralization, when appropriately structured, provides an arrangement through which critical issues (such as those of national unity and indivisibility, how to safeguard national interests and ensure coordinated and even development, equity in the distribution of resources, diversity, and local autonomy) can be reconciled.*
Decentralisation, Political: Political decentralisation aims to give citizens and their elected representatives more power in local public decision making. It is often associated with pluralistic politics and representative government, and it can also support decentralisation by giving citizens or their representatives more influence in formulating and implementing policies.*
Decision Tree: An analytical technique that elaborates a variety of possible actions that lead to specific outcomes, alongside the consideration of risks for each action.  This is a tool mainly used by managers and other decision-makers.
Delegation: Assigning tasks to others. Government delegation refers to "the transfer of government decision-making and administrative authority for clearly defined tasks to organizations or firms that are either under its indirect control or are independent. Most typically, delegation is done by central government to semi-autonomous organizations not wholly controlled by the government but legally accountable to it. *
Democracy: A system of government in which the people have the right to select their leadership through a process such as free elections, express their needs, concerns and priorities, and, in many cases, elect persons to be their representatives at local, state/province and national levels.  A democracy is usually known for being ruled by the majority voting results, while also protecting the rights of the minorities.
Democratic Elections: A process whereby those who have registered as electors in a country are given the opportunity to vote for people of their choice to represent them in the Parliament (or other legislative body) of their country at regular intervals, as set in law.  There are many ways in which elections are subverted, but they become democratic when the following aspects are observed:
• Acceptance of the outcome by the winners and losers
• Impartiality and fairness in the process of holding the elections
• The elections are non-violent and free from threats
• Participation by a majority of the citizens of the country
• Professionalism by those who manage the elections in setting up election booths, collecting votes cast, etc.
• Openness in the declaration of the results of the voting
• Regularity in keeping to the legal intervals for holding the elections
• Rule of law is followed in the nominations of candidates, the limits to expenditure on elections, etc.
• Timeliness in holding the elections at the legal intervals
• Transparency in clearly counting votes, declaring results, and publicising those results.
Denying Rights: The act of preventing someone from realising their human, social, or other type of rights.
Devolution: The transfer of authority for decision making, finance and management to local government. Devolution usually transfers responsibilities for services to municipalities that elect their own mayors and councils, raise their own revenues and have independent authority to make investment decisions. In a devolved system, local governments have clear and legally recognised geographical boundaries over which they exercise authority, and within which they perform public functions. 
Diagonal Accountability: In a National Integrity System, diagonal accountability operates in a domain between the vertical and horizontal dimensions. It refers to the phenomenon of direct citizen engagement with horizontal accountability institutions (e.g. citizens may contact the ombudsman, who then horizontally negotiates with another pillar representative) when promoting better oversight of state actions. Citizens bypass cumbersome or compromised formal accountability systems to engage in policy-making, budgeting, expenditure tracking and other similar activities.  Diagonal accountability has been the locus of many innovations, especially in the last 20 years.
Diplomacy: Skill in managing negotiations, handling people, etc. in order to ensure there is little or no ill will. 
Disclosure: The release of relevant information, the act or instance of disclosing to a third party or to the public. 
Discretion: The authority to make decisions. 
Disrespect: Lack of respect or courtesy. 
Distortion of Information: Misrepresentation of information or providing misleading information. 
Double Dipping: A phrase referring to the practice of receiving two or more sources of funds where one is redundant for the specific activity or use, or two or more grants for the same activity in a project, without accounting for it properly with the donors. 
Doubts: Feelings of uncertainty. 
Due Diligence: Full compliance with rules and procedures that a person exercises in carrying out a process.
An investigation, research, or analysis of an organisation or individual prior to entering into a contract, transaction or activity with another party.
Due Process: Refers to all the correct procedures and regulations being followed in a situation that makes sure that a person who is in a dispute about something gets fair and just treatment. 
Duty: An obligation assumed by contract, imposed by law or based on ethical standards to conduct oneself in conformance with a certain standard or to act in a certain way.
E-Government: Short for electronic government, also known as e-gov, Internet government, digital government, online government, or connected government. Consists of government communications being handled digitally i.e., digital interactions between a government and citizens, public procurement, business licensing, recruitment, etc.
Embezzlement: The wrongful diversion of goods to one’s own use, or fraudulent appropriation of property.
Equality: The state of being equal, especially in status, rights, obligations or opportunities.
Ethical Behaviour: Ethical behaviour denotes an organisation’s conformity with the set or system of principles and commitments that are established to inform its decision-making and behaviour. Such behaviour is based on a consciousness of what is legally, morally and professionally important, obligatory or permissible. If an organisation behaves ethically, it does not abuse its position and behaves fairly and equitably towards all stakeholders. Its decisions are implemented with care, reflection and consistency.
Ethical Competence: The 'glue' that holds an ethics regime together.  It is composed of 3 things: (a) The ability to identify and name integrity or public sector ethics problems, (b) knowledge of the legislation, code and standards to which these breaches apply, and (c) ability to propose solutions and a way of redressing these problems.
Ethical competence can be tested.
Ethical Investment: An investment policy requiring investments to be made only to organisations operating on the basis of ethical principles. 
Ethics: One of the main elements of Integrity:  Acting with honour and public purpose. Ethics prescribe specific guidance on behaviours that should or shouldn’t be practised as a matter of personal, professional or organisational obligation.
Ethics Regime: Composed of 3 things (a) a clear statement of an organisation’s mission, code of conduct and values, (b) leadership that ‘walks the walk’ and ‘talks the talk’, meaning that the leader behaves according to the ethics messages he/she disseminates, and (c) a credible grievance mechanism to deal with complaints.
Ethnicity: The characteristics of an ethnic group; membership of an ethnic group. 
Ethnocentrism: The belief that one's ethnic or cultural group is superior. 
Evaluation: Evaluations are thorough investigations into the difference between planned and actual results and the reasons for these differences.
Evidence Base: The third stage in the process of Community Integrity Building, characterised by data collection, analysis and verification.
Executive Order: A presidential or prime ministerial mandate directed to and governing, with the effect of law, the actions of government officials and agencies.
Exit: Exit is to leave one's job due to an unwillingness to tolerate corruption in one's workplace.
Exploit: To benefit unfairly from the work of someone else.
Extortion: Officials unlawfully requesting or demanding money or things of value from other persons; also, extracting something by force.
Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI): A coalition of businesses, governments, and civil society actors that aims to promote transparency through the implementation of a common EITI standard. The standard requires participating organisations to publish all payments they make in conducting business in a given country, which is then put together with the reports of respective governments on the payments they received. All information is published in the EITI report and the EITI global conference is held every two years.
Facilitation Payments / Grease Payments: A payment made to a government official or other person of authority to speed up or change the performance of his/her routine functions to the payer’s advantage. 
Failure to Report: Neglecting one's duty to report something to the authorities, especially a wrongdoing.
False Accounting: Altering and destroying or presenting financial accounts in a way, so that they would not show the true value of assets, liabilities, and the financial state of an institution, organisation, or individual. Typical examples include an overstatement of assets and understatement of liabilities. 
False Loyalty: Faithfulness or allegiance that is not true. 
Favouritism: An act of showing or giving unfair preference or favour. 
Fiduciary Responsibility: The legal or ethical obligation built on trust to act primarily for a client’s benefit in matters connected with an undertaking, and not for the fiduciary’s own personal interest. The fiduciary duty of directors includes, amongst other items, the duty of care, the duty of loyalty, the duty of candour and good faith.
Fix: The resolution of a problem to the satisfaction of the main stakeholders.  In the integrity field, we are primarily interested in problems that are resolved through the use of transparency, accountability, integrity, etc. The focus is on outcomes and impact of better services and quality of life, rather than outputs.
Fix-Rate: The Fix-Rate is the percentage of the problems identified that have been resolved to the satisfaction of key stakeholders. The Fix-Rate is one of the few reliable outcome measures for governance reform. Most governance reforms can only be measured by their outputs and activities.
Franchising: Contracting out a particular service  or private concern by government, such as delivery of a public service.
Fraud: Criminal deception, false representation or omission of information to obtain an unfair advantage. 
Free Riders: Individuals in a group who let others do the work while they themselves also reap the benefits.
Full Disclosure: To convey complete information. 
Functional Analysis: Functions connect the causes and the consequences of corruption. They are not a moral judgment on the costs and benefits of corruption but they help to (a) partly  explain why corruption endures and (b) shed light on the extent to which reforms provide viable alternatives. To be successful, reforms must provide viable alternatives to at least some of the most important functions of corruption. 
Gender Equality: Also known as sex equality, sexual equality or equality of the genders, refers to the view that men and women should receive equal treatment, and should not be discriminated against based on gender, unless there is a sound biological reason for different treatment.
Ghost Worker: A person on an organisation’s payroll who doesn’t actually work in the organisation.
Global Corruption Barometer: A public opinion survey conducted by Transparency International (TI) worldwide that aims to collect views and opinions of respondents about corruption. 
Global Integrity: A US based non-profit organisation working in the field of anti-corruption and promotion of transparency and accountability of governments worldwide. It unites more than 1,000 researchers and experts who participate in the preparation of the Global Integrity Report (see entry). 
Global Integrity Report: A report prepared by Global Integrity that comprises the work of national researchers who assess transparency and accountability of national governments as well as an existence and effectiveness of anti-corruption efforts of selected countries based on developed integrity indicators. 
Governance: Governance denotes the collective means by which direction, oversight and control are exercised over an organisation’s activities and conduct. This includes the mechanisms and processes by which decisions about the allocation, use and disposition of assets are made, executed and accounted for. This is relevant for governments, public administration at all levels and organisations.
Graft: Making illegal profit; also, denotes the dishonest funds themselves.
Greenwash: A public relations or marketing strategy deceptively displaying an organisation as environmentally friendly, when its environmental commitment is actually poor. 
Grey Zone: Areas not clearly defined or where legal regulations are ambiguous. It may refer to activities that are not illegal but may be unethical.
Grievance: A complaint about a wrong or perceived wrongdoing that causes resentment and may be grounds for action. 
Helpfulness: Providing needed assistance. 
Hierarchy: A characteristic of the structure of formal bureaucratic organisations (such as government or other bureaucracies); a clear vertical “chain of command” in which each unit is subordinate to the one above it and superior to the one below it.*
Honesty: The characteristic of telling the truth. 
Horizontal Accountability: This type of accountability is demonstrated through formal relationships within the state itself, whereby one state actor has the formal authority to demand explanations or impose penalties on another. Its focus is on internal checks and oversight processes. For example, a Head of State must explain his/her decisions to Legislatures, and can in some cases be overruled or sanctioned for procedural violations. Horizontal accountability relates to the pillars in the 'National Integrity System' diagram.
Human Rights: Moral principles that set out certain standards of human behaviour, and are regularly protected as legal rights in national and international law. The entitlement to human rights is fundamental to all human beings, both as universal (applicable everywhere) and egalitarian (the same for everyone).
ICC Guidelines on Whistleblowing: Guidelines prepared by the International Chamber of Commerce Commission on Anti-corruption with the purpose of assisting companies in establishing a whistleblower programme. 
Illegal: Against the law. 
Impartial: Fair; just; not biased. 
Improper Conduct: Inappropriate or unacceptable behaviour. 
Incomplete Information: Details of an issue or situation that are not provided or available. 
Incontrovertible Evidence: Indisputable facts; cannot be proven wrong. 
Independent Auditor: An unrelated third party accounting firm that audits the financial records of an organisation. As a best practice, the accounting firm should not be engaged with the organisation for other services. 
Independent Regulator: Semi-autonomous agencies usually established by law with a well-defined, separate, legislative base that outlines its objectives and functions, meant to be free of external political or other types of pressure.
Information Asymmetry: A situation in which one party has more or superior information to another party. Many corruption opportunities are created by information asymmetries. The ‘principal-agent problem’ partly requires that we redress the information asymmetries between principals and agents in order to level the field.  Additional information asymmetries can occur between principal, agent and client, as well.
Intangible Assets: Defined as identifiable, non-monetary assets that cannot be seen, touched or physically measured, which are created through time and/or effort and that are identifiable as a separate asset.
Integrity: In Integrity Action's approach integrity is an organisational culture of accountability, competence and ethics without corruption. In an organisation it should not be viewed as something that you either have or totally lack. Integrity leads to trust and requires trustworthiness to stakeholders; it is not enough to trust, because the organisation must be worthy of that trust.  
Integrity Advice Centre: A unit in an organisation that provides advice to employees in solving integrity or ethical challenges on the job.
Integrity Approach: The Integrity Approach to reducing corruption and/or solving integrity or ethical challenges is characterised by being:
• Values-based
• Aware of discrepancies between policies, rules and laws, and actual implementation of them
• Collaboration-focused to get violators to fix the problems by working with integrity, using conflict resolution methods, especially alternative dispute resolution methods
• Solution-focused
• More discretion.
• An integrity approach can be led from the top-down and/or bottom-up.
This is in contrast to a Compliance Approach.
Integrity Characteristics: Characteristics that provide a strong indication of trustworthiness for stakeholders and therefore integrity.  Integrity Action's definition of integrity is the alignment of Accountability, Competence and Ethics, without Corruption.  These four elements comprise identifiable and/or measurable characteristics of integrity.
Integrity Education: Teaching and training that promote integrity and anti-corruption through a values-based, collaborative, action learning, solution-focused and low discretion process that can be top-down and bottom-up.  Integrity education aims to prepare people of different ages and qualifications to use practical tools in order to become better at demanding integrity from others and practicing it themselves in their personal and work environments and professions.
Integrity Gap: An integrity gap describes the gap between expected and actual standards of performance. Integrity gaps arise where an organisation or person fails to demonstrate the trustworthiness required to inspire stakeholder trust.  Identifying integrity gaps can be an important step towards developing solutions that minimise the gaps.
Integrity Leader: An integrity leader is usually the individual responsible for championing the process to strengthen integrity within an organisation, however others within an organisation can lead towards integrity without having formal responsibility to do so.  In some cases, there are outstanding integrity leaders who do not lead within a specific organisation, but are leaders within society.
Integrity Lens: An Integrity Lens is an analytical tool to determine whether any given situation, action, decision or stakeholder demonstrates the key elements of integrity, namely aligning Accountability, Competence, and Ethics, without Corruption.
Integrity Officer: An employee in an organisation who is trained and responsible for assisting other employees in solving integrity or ethical challenges they face at work, confidentially. As different from a compliance officer, the integrity officer’s main focus is to help the employee develop a solution to the problem rather than focus on litigation or reporting.  Of course, when necessary, serious issues are reported. 
Integrity Pact: The Integrity Pact, developed by Transparency International, is a tool for preventing corruption, mainly used in public contracting. It is essentially an agreement between the government agency offering a contract and the companies bidding for it, that they will abstain from bribery, collusion and other corrupt practices for the extent of the contract.  Most Integrity Pacts rely on digitally-based procedures to prevent direct contact between bidders with their bids, and the persons involved in the decision-making process.  To ensure accountability, Integrity Pacts also include a monitoring system typically led by civil society or other external groups.
Integrity Testing: Measures taken either pre-employment or on the job, to assess a person’s propensity or characteristics towards honest, dishonest or counterproductive behaviour.
Integrity Working Group: A cross functional group of people within an organisation that supports the integrity leader in championing the process to strengthen integrity within the organisation.
Interest Group: A private group of people who represent a set of views, mainly regarding public policies, and usually advocate for their adoption by government.
International Anti-Corruption Day: 9 December was declared an international anti-corruption day by the United Nations General Assembly in October 2003, to mark the adoption of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) and raise awareness to the problem of corruption across the globe. 
Joint Learning: The second stage in the process of Community Integrity Building (CIB) characterised by identifying and training community monitors on data gathering, forming multistakeholder joint working groups and selecting development projects to monitor.
Judiciary: Persons who administer justice such as a body of judges or court system. 
Jumping the Queue: Related to integrity, or lack thereof, ‘jumping the queue’ is when someone pays a facilitation payment to a service provider in return for giving the person priority in the receipt of services. 
Justify: Show to be reasonable or right by providing justification or proof. 
Kickback: A negotiated payment made to a government official who has taken a bribe for services rendered in order to obtain an advantage inconsistent with official duty and the rights of others.  The term kickback comes from slang, in which funds are 'kicked back' to the bribed official.
Leadership: A term that refers to a set of personality characteristics and behaviour of persons who lead others using formal and informal authority or personal influence.
Legal or Social Clinic: Legal or social clinics are facilities set up by a Civil Society Organisation/Non-Governmental Organisation or university to provide free advice to local citizens on legal or social topics that are important to them, or to advise them where they can get the legal or social advice they need.
Licence to Operate: Granting of permission to conduct a trade or organisational activity, which often denotes the adherence to a set of standards.
Licensing: A variation of contracting out, in which government grants a license to a private concern to sell a product or service that would not otherwise be allowed outside the public domain.
Lobbying: Attempting to influence a decision-maker regarding policy, usually a government official or a legislator.
Logical Framework Analysis (Logframe): A logframe is a particular analytical tool often required by donor agencies to show how a project or programme idea has been analysed, structured and systematised.
Lying: Not telling the truth.
Malpractice: Behaviour that is illegal, improper or unprofessional.
Management by Objectives (MBO): A management technique designed to facilitate goal and priority setting, with development of plans, resource allocation, monitoring progress towards goals, evaluating results, and generating and implementing improvements in performance are driven by guiding activities towards the achievement of those goals.
Meme: Memes are social phenomena that evolve over time, much like genes do, through a process of natural selection. Corruption is a very successful meme. Concept developed by Richard Dawkins. 
Merit Pay: Increases in salary and wages that are tied to actual quality of work performed.
Merit Principle: A concept that selection of government employees should be based on merit or competence rather than personal or political favouritism.
Meritocracy: A system of organisation, public administration or government that holds that power should be vested in individuals almost wholly on the basis of the merit principle.
Misrepresentation: Misleading regarding information or behaviour. 
Mission: A mission is a description of what an organisation does and why it currently exists. A mission statement should describe organisational purpose, using language that signifies intention.
Mission Statement: A short, formal statement that reflects an organisation's purpose, aims and values.
Mob Rule: Government by mob or a mass of people, or the intimidation of constitutional authorities. 
Money Laundering: A process of hiding an original source of money obtained by illegal means through legitimate people or accounts. 
Monitoring: Monitoring is the process by which project or service implementation is assessed in order to check whether it has been done in accordance with the plan (contract, budget, quantities, etc). It is common to compare planned and actual results at the level of activities and outputs. It means double-checking that activities and outputs have actually occurred as planned and also that they have achieved the desired results.
Monopoly: A monopoly exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity or service. Monopolies are thus characterised by a lack of economic competition to produce the good or service and a lack of viable substitute goods.
Morals: Morals are societal norms of expected behaviour. They tend to relate to what society sees as good or bad and right or wrong.
Multi-Stakeholder Initiatives: These are initiatives in which government, business, civil society and other stakeholder groups join together to provide oversight on public projects or service delivery, in an effort to ensure proper use of funds according to the contract and other project documents.
National Integrity System: The National Integrity System, a concept coined by Jeremy Pope, is the institutional framework and mechanisms of the state and society that combine to promote sustainable development, the rule of law and the quality of life through integrity. At its base is a strong foundation of the citizenry with its social values and awareness, holding up all the elements or 'pillars' of the public sector, including some private sector and even international actors that influence the public sector in a country.  These pillars hold up National Integrity; but if the pillars are weak and dysfunctional, they cannot sustain National Integrity and hence achievement of society's goals are jeopardised.
Nepotism: Showing favour to friends and relatives in appointments, promotions, services, etc.
Neutrality: The absence of bias. 
Nondisclosure: A condition in which certain information is not revealed by one party to another.
Non-Profit Organisations: Organisations prohibited by law from distributing surplus revenues to individuals; they often have social goals, working for the benefit of the public. Also referred to as non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and civil society organisations (CSOs).
Normative Teaching: A form of teaching that is mainly cognitive - i.e., material is learned through memorising, thinking, and other cognitive processes. Related to integrity and anti-corruption, normative teaching reviews national and international legislation and institutional mechanisms (including by state, civil society, business), as well as key concepts and predominant approaches.
Objectives Tree: A hierarchic flowchart of objectives, supported by activities, outputs and outcomes within the Logical Framework (log frame) approach. 
Ombudsman: A permanent office - usually within a government - that receives complaints from citizens and acts on behalf of those citizens to secure information, request services, or pursue grievances; the Ombudsman often has a significant role in diagonal accountability within the National Integrity System.
Open Contracting: Refers to norms and practices for increased information disclosure and participation in public contracting, including tendering, performance and completion. It includes the variety of contract types, from more basic contracts for the procurement of goods, to complex contracts, joint venture agreements, licenses and production sharing agreements. Open contracting encompasses all public contracting, including contracts funded by combinations of public, private and donor sources.
Open Data: The idea that certain data should be freely available to all people to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control. The goals of the open data movement are similar to those of other "Open" movements such as open source, open hardware, open content and open access. 
Open Government: The governing doctrine which holds that citizens have the right to access the documents and proceedings of the government to allow for effective public oversight. In its broadest construction it opposes ‘reason of state’ and other considerations, which have tended to legitimise extensive state secrecy.
Organisational Change: A theory of organisations that concentrates on increasing the ability of an organisation to implement changes needed to solve internal problems of organisational behaviour as one of its routine functions; concerned first with identification and analysis of such problems, and then with formulating a solution that is applied through change within the organisation.
Organisational Culture: Basic patterns of attitudes, beliefs and values that underlie an organisation’s operations and procedures.
Organisational Ethics: Specific guidance on behaviours in a professional and/or organisational context and notably how the organisation relates to its stakeholders. They essentially prescribe behaviours that should or shouldn’t be practised as a matter of obligation.
Outcome: The state or situation that results from what you actually do based on specific activities or outputs. 
Output: What you actually do, which may result in a certain outcome. 
Participatory Democracy: A political and philosophical belief in direct involvement by affected citizens in the process of governmental decision making; believed by some to be essential to the existence of democratic government. A related term is citizen participation.*
Patronage: The support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organisation or individual bestows to another. It often is used to describe political patronage, which is the use of state resources to reward individuals for their electoral support.  The term may also refer to a type of corruption or favouritism in which a party in power rewards groups, families, an ethnic group, etc. for their electoral support using illegal gifts or fraudulently awarded appointments or government contracts.
Pedagogical Methods (especially suited for Integrity): There are six main pedagogical methods for teaching integrity and anti-corruption: 1) normative and conceptual, 2) ethical and moral, 3) case study (in all its formats), 4) critical insights, 5) problem-centred and 6) action-learning.  A variety of methods deepens and enhances learning, especially since people learn in different ways.
Performance Appraisal: Specific evaluation, usually by a superior with an employee, with respect to the individual’s progress in completing his/her specified tasks.  The performance appraisal process may include feedback solicited from colleagues, superiors or subordinates as well, known as 360 degree feedback.
Performance Indicators: These are measures or statements used to evaluate performance to expected standards, based on data that an organisation itself can collect.
Performance Management: Generally understood to be the management of the performance of government organisations as a whole, their chief executives and their staff.
Performance Standards: A standard that represents a benchmark of required performance to apply in different areas of management and operating activity.
Pluralism: A social and political concept stressing the appropriateness of group organisation that includes diversity of groups and their activities, as a means of protecting broad group interests in society; assumes that groups are good and that diversity among them will benefit the public interest.
Policy: The set of laws, regulations or other government enforced rules or funding arrangements that require, restrain or pay for actions from individuals, enterprises or government officials and together contribute to the achievement of specific government objectives.
Poor Documentation: Lack of professionalism in recording information (e.g., incomplete, misrepresented, biased, poorly written information). 
Prejudice: An unfavourable opinion or feeling formed beforehand regarding a group. 
Pressure: In this instance, exerting undue persuasion or intimidation for another person to do something.
Price Gouging: To grossly overcharge for a purchase. 
Principal: One who authorises another to act on his or her behalf as an agent. See entry 'principal-agent problem'.
Principal-Agent Problem: Fundamentally it concerns the difficulties of motivating one party to act on interests other than its own; often based on information asymmetries. One example is a government manager (Principal), who sends an Agent to collect taxes from the citizens.  The Principal's interest is to collect all the taxes.  The Agent's interest is to collect taxes, but may also be to get some personal financial benefit from the transactions. The Agent decides to give a lower-than-average tax rate, getting a kickback from the citizen who has paid less than expected. Due to information asymmetry, the Principal does not know about the lower rate, nor of the kickback taken by the Agent.
Private, Not for Profit Agency: A formal agency volunteer programme, or a private non-profit service organisation operated by at least one paid professional, in which volunteers provide at least some of a service either independently or under government direction.
Privatisation: Shifting functions, in whole or in part, from government to the private sector. This may happen when there is a political decision that there is no continuing public policy reason to retain responsibility within government, because of widespread corruption in a public utility or government owned company, or when that responsibility can be discharged through regulation.*
Problems: For Community Integrity Building (CIB) monitoring work, problems are instances of corruption or maladministration issues that need to be fixed. Choosing which problems to fix should be done as objectively as possible, as a significant discrepancy, e.g., between (a) a contract and its actual execution,  (b) a policy and its implementation, or (c) an entitlement and access.
Problem-Centred Teaching: Working on live, unresolved cases, preferably from the workplace (or personal life) of the individuals concerned. The problems should be used as an opportunity to test learning and concepts as well as to train on the ability to propose viable solutions.  
Problem Tree: A problem tree systematises the problems identified during a brainstorming process into relations of cause and effect of a particular problem area of interest to an organisation or community.
Procurement: A process of acquiring goods and services in a structured way, for example through public tenders, e-procurement or sometimes Integrity Pacts. 
Professionalism: The standards of education and training that prepare members of the profession with the particular knowledge and skills necessary to perform the role of that profession. In addition, most professionals are subject to a strict code of conduct enshrining rigorous ethical and moral obligations. Professional standards of practice and ethics for a particular field are typically agreed upon and maintained through widely recognised professional associations. 
Protest: To disapprove or complain about something publicly. 
Protocol: The customs and regulations dealing with the formal way of carrying out activities. 
Psychomotor Learning/Behavioural Learning: Helping students acquire new skills – both analytical and practical – which they can physically and in actuality apply to cope with integrity challenges. One of three main types of learning as identified by Benjamin Bloom, the others being Affective and Cognitive Learning. 
Public Good: The benefit or well-being of the public. 
Public Hearing: Public Hearings are meetings between citizens and local government (or representatives of national government) at which an issue important to local citizens is brought up for discussion. It is usually requested by the local community, and they may be encouraged to call for it by a local Civil Society Organisation (CSO) that is working with them.
Public Policy: Principles and standards that are of fundamental concern to the government and the whole of the society. 
Public-Private Partnership: A cooperative or joint venture between two or more parties in the public and private sectors, built on the strength and expertise of each partner.
Public Procurement: The process of government institutions acquiring goods and services.
Racism: A belief that the differences between human races determine cultural or individual achievement. It usually involves the idea that one's own race is superior to others.
Rationalisation: Justification of a behaviour by means that may not necessarily be rational.
Reason of State: A term used mainly by governments based on alleged state needs, to justify political actions taken - that may include the violation of rights or moral codes - or actions not taken - such as withholding information from the public.  Often, the public is not informed of specific reasons for the government's actions or inaction.
Red Tape: A term used to describe excessive paperwork needed to conform to the formal requirements and obtain approval or achieve a goal. Usually used in reference to bureaucratic formalities and procedures of the government institutions.
Resource Curse: This refers to the paradox that countries with plenty of natural resources (especially oil, gas and minerals) tend to have lower levels of economic growth, higher rates of poverty and inequality and worse governance than countries with fewer natural resources. Prominent exceptions to this curse are Norway and Canada; Nigeria and Angola are widely considered examples of the resource curse. 
Respecting Rights: Enabling or recognising someone's rights. 
Responsibility: A form of trustworthiness; the trait of being answerable to someone for something or being liable for one's conduct.
Responsiveness: Responding with competence, empathy, courtesy and timeliness to people and their needs. A core characteristic of accountability and competence, especially for public officials who provide services to citizens. 
Risk Averse: Being cautious about taking risks. 
Risk Management: A procedure to identify potential sources of risk to an organisation, to assess and to minimise any negative consequences.  
Self-interest: Taking advantage of opportunities without regard for the consequences for others. 
Service Charters: A document that lays out what standards of service stakeholders can expect from an organisation, sometimes negotiated jointly between government and beneficiaries. Also statements of service targets published by service providing agencies that set standards for the agency and can define compensation to the public if they are not achieved. They are known by such names as “Citizens’ Charters” (UK) or “Public Service Charters” (Korea).
Sexist: A type of discrimination against members of the opposite sex. 
Sideline: To remove from the centre of activity or attention; place in an inferior position. 
Social Accountability: Refers to a process of strengthening the ability of citizens, CSOs and other non-state actors to work with governments to hold them accountable and responsible for implementing the laws and regulations that have been passed or agreed by different legitimate bodies, but have often not been executed properly. It is also about encouraging government to be fully transparent and responsive to citizens’ needs. Community Integrity Building is a type of social accountability. The effectiveness of social accountability activities can in part be assessed by their Fix-Rates. 
Social Audit: Social Audits are meetings between citizens and local government (or representatives of national government) at which a public accounting of budgets, expenditures, contracts, bills of quantity, employment,  may be reviewed in order to ensure that there are no discrepancies or irregularities in relation to a particular project or programme that has been carried out by a government body. It may be incorporated into  the ongoing procedures of any local government project – or it may be something requested or carried out by the community. It usually takes place at the completion of a particular project, and is often reported in a public hearing.
Social Capital: 1. An intangible value of an organisation that includes social and interpersonal skills of officers and employees. 2. A term referring to networks, connections, and affiliations of an individual that allow him to receive benefits or opportunities. 3. Broadly, a term referring to interrelations and networks formed by social actors in the society, providing tangible and intangible value to one another. 
Social Equality: A social state of affairs in which all people within a specific society or isolated group have the same status in a certain respect. 
Social Justice: Social justice is the reality for people to be treated equitably and realise their potential in the society where they live. The goal of social justice is generally the same as human development, and the relevant institutions are usually taken to include education, health care, social security, labour rights, as well as a broader system of public services, progressive taxation and regulation of markets, to ensure fair distribution of wealth, equality of opportunity, and no gross inequality of outcome.
Social Responsibility: Social responsibility is an ethical theory that an entity, be it an organisation or individual, has an obligation to act to benefit society at large. Social responsibility is a duty every individual has to perform so as to maintain a balance between the economy and the ecosystems. It pertains not only to business organisations but also to everyone whose action impacts on the environment. This responsibility can be passive, by avoiding engaging in socially harmful acts, or active, by performing activities that directly advance social goals.
Socially Responsible Investment: An investment approach or strategy that considers certain social goals in addition to profitability. Social goals can include different social, environmental, ethical and other issues that investors aim to promote and preserve. 
Spoilers: Individuals and groups that actively work to undermine reforms  or proper compliance with norms and regulations.
Stakeholder: Stakeholders are 'interested parties' - i.e., the people and entities that are directly and/or indirectly affected by the decisions an organisation makes and the courses of action it pursues.  It can also be a person, group or institution that is affected by or has an effect on the company with or without direct legal (corporate) rights.
Primary stakeholders are those whose continued participation is considered absolutely necessary for the survival of an organisation. They either directly benefit from the products and/or services that an organisation provides, or are directly involved in processes to deliver them. Secondary stakeholders are not considered absolutely necessary for an organisation’s survival. They can nonetheless have a significant influence on its effectiveness and efficiency. Even remote secondary stakeholders can exert pressure, by calling into question an organisation’s legitimacy and right to exist.
Stakeholder Mapping: This is a process to identify and prioritise key stakeholders based on their importance to your organisation and your organisation’s importance to them.
Stakeholder Theory: The theory that states that a company should take into account interests of all stakeholders in performing its activities.
State Capture: The actions of individuals, groups or firms, both in the public and private sectors, to influence the formation of laws, regulations, decrees or other government policies to their own advantage as a result of the illegal transfer or concentration of private benefits to public officials.
Stewardship: Managing and overseeing the progress of a process. 
Stolen Property: Goods that have been unlawfully obtained. 
Strategic Interventions: Jonathan Fox, an expert in social accountability, defines strategic interventions as an approach with a theory of change that takes into account the whole causal chain, for example in a procurement process, or in a policy decision. It is distinguished from a tactical approach. Community Integrity Building is an example of a strategic intervention.  
Strategic Planning: Matching organisational objectives and capabilities to the demands of the environment to produce a plan of action that will ensure achievement of objectives.
Submissive: The trait of being willing to yield to the will of another person or a superior force, etc. 
Sustainability: The integration of economic progress, social development and environmental concerns with the objective of ensuring a consistent or better quality of life for future generations.
Tactical Interventions: Jonathan Fox, an expert in social accountability, defines tactical interventions (as distinguished from strategic interventions) as an approach with a theory of change that assumes it can trigger chain by addressing a single link in the causal chain, for example of a procurement process or educational policy. 
Tangible Assets: Tangible assets can be seen, touched, or physically measured (e.g., property, equipment, cash and other financial instruments).
Theory of Change: This is a methodology for planning, participating in and evaluating social change. It is widely used by non-profit organisations and the public sector. 
Threat: Statement of intention to cause pain or carry out a hostile action. 
Top-Down Approach: A leadership style used in an organisation when all decisions and planning are made by senior management and then communicated to the lower level officers and employees. 
Transparency: The practice of governments, companies and organisations communicating openly and in a straightforward manner important information to investors, shareholders and other stakeholders. Accountability often requires a degree of transparency. But transparency does not automatically lead to accountability. 
Tribalism: A feeling of identity and loyalty to one's tribe. 
Trust: Trust is the willingness of one person (e.g., a stakeholder) to put him/herself in a position of vulnerability to another (e.g., your organisation), in the expectation that his/her interests will not be abused. Trust is built on an expectation that the recipient of such trust (i.e., your organisation) can do what it claims. Trust is given voluntarily – it cannot be demanded; trust should not be given unless one is certain the subject is trustworthy.
Trustworthiness: To be worthy of trust. The extent to which measures are in place to build others’ confidence, based upon performance and behaviour.
Undue Pressure: An attempt to persuade or intimidate excessively. 
Unresponsiveness: A situation in which someone in a position of power does not respond as is their duty.
Value Proposition: A value proposition is a tool for expressing why your organisation’s claim on the resources of its stakeholders is more valid than that of other, competing organisations. It should comprise a clear statement of the tangible and intangible results that the stakeholder can expect and the factors that set your organisation apart from others as a more attractive recipient of resources.
Values: Values represent the positive, motivating drive for organisational activities and the guidance for determining its priorities of action. They should inspire and guide individual behaviour within the organisation. They should underpin the intent and direction of your organisation’s strategy.
Vested Interest: A right or title that can be conveyed; a special interest in protecting whatever is to one's own advantage. 
Vision: A vision statement describes what an organisation aspires to be and gives shape and direction to its future. In this way a vision is expressed as a desired future state. 
Voice: When an employee expresses a concern to someone of authority regarding the bad or illegal behaviour of someone within the organisation
Uneven Playing Field: A situation that appears in cases when competitors compete on different terms and conditions creating unfair advantages or disadvantages.
Vertical Accountability: In a National Integrity System, vertical accountability is demonstrated when citizens and their associations play direct roles in holding the powerful to account. Elections are the formal institutional channel of vertical accountability. But there are also informal processes through which citizens organise themselves into associations capable of influencing governments and private service providers, demanding explanations and threatening less formal sanctions, like negative publicity.
Victimisation: Unfair treatment of an employee by another employee or employer. 
Whistleblower: A person, usually an employee, who reports illegal activities going on inside an organisation to the management, media or public. 
Whistleblower Hotline: A telephone line or website dedicated to receiving information, often from an employee in an organisation, related to corrupt behaviour.  It is often a means of maintaining confidentiality and anonymity.
White List: A list of organisations (often suppliers of goods and services) that have been noted as having behaved with integrity in the past and that have good systems and procedures in place, and thus should be allowed and encouraged to continue providing goods and services in the future. 
Withholding Information: Refraining from disclosing relevant information that one has. 
Zero Tolerance: A zero tolerance policy imposes automatic punishment for infractions of a stated rule, with the intention of eliminating undesirable conduct. Zero-tolerance policies forbid persons in positions of authority from exercising discretion or changing punishments to fit the circumstances subjectively; they are required to impose a pre-determined punishment regardless of individual culpability, extenuating circumstances, or history. This pre-determined punishment need not be severe, but it is always meted out.

Definition taken from:

* UN Public Adminstration Network

** World Bank;  p. 15 

African Development Bank Group: The overarching objective of the African Development Bank (AfDB) Group is to spur sustainable economic development and social progress in its regional member countries (RMCs), thus contributing to poverty reduction.  AfDB website
African Parliamentarian Network Against Corruption (APNAC): APNAC is a network of African Parliamentarians aimed at involving parliamentarians in the fight against corruption.  APNAC was formed in Kampala in February 1999.  APNAC website
Anti-Corruption Network for Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Established in 1998, the Anti-Corruption Network (ACN) is a regional outreach programme of the OECD Working Group on Bribery.  OECD website
Ashoka Changemakers: Ashoka is the largest network of social entrepreneurs worldwide (including those working in integrity, transparency and accountability) with nearly 3,000 Ashoka Fellows in 70 countries putting their system changing ideas into practice on a global scale.  Ashoka website
Asian Development Bank (ADB): ADB is a regional development bank established in 1966 and is headquartered in Metro Manila, Philippines, to facilitate economic development in Asia.   ADB 
Central European University Business School: CEU Business School was founded in Budapest in 1988, then expanded to become a broader higher education institution in 1991 as the Central European University.  It is headed by George Soros.  CEU website
Council of Europe (COE): The Council of Europe is the continent's leading human rights organisation. It includes 47 member states, 28 of which are members of the European Union. All Council of Europe member states have signed up to the European Convention on Human Rights, a treaty designed to protect human rights, democracy and the rule of law.  COE website
European Anti Fraud Office (OLAF): Aims to protect the financial interests of the European Union (EU) by investigating fraud, corruption and any other illegal activities. It also detects and investigates serious matters relating to the discharge of professional duties by members and staff of the EU institutions and bodies that could result in disciplinary or criminal proceedings. OLAF also supports the EU institutions, in particular the European Commission, in the development and implementation of anti-fraud legislation and policies.  OLAF website
European Commission (EC): The European Commission is the EU's executive body. It represents the interests of the European Union as a whole (not the interests of individual countries).  EC website
European Partners Against Corruption (EPAC): EPAC is an independent, informal network bringing together more than 60 anti-corruption authorities and police oversight bodies from Council of Europe Member Countries.  EPAC website
Ford Foundation (FF): The Ford Foundation, established in 1936, aims to strengthen democratic values, reduce poverty and injustice, promote international cooperation, advance human achievement worldwide.  FF website
Global Integrity (GI): Global Integrity champions transparent and accountable government around the world by producing innovative research and technologies that inform, connect, and empower civic, private, and public reformers seeking more open societies.  GI website
Global Organisation of Parliamentarians Against Corruption (GOPAC): GOPAC is an international network of parliamentarians dedicated to good governance and combating corruption throughout the world. Since its inception, GOPAC has provided information and analysis, established international benchmarks, and improved public awareness through a combination of global pressure and national action.  GOPAC website
Global Partnership for Social Accountability (GPSA): The GPSA supports civil society and governments to work together to solve critical governance challenges in developing countries.  GPSA website
Global Witness (GW): Global Witness exposes the hidden links between demand for natural resources, corruption, armed conflict and environmental destruction.  GW website
Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO): GRECO was established in 1999 by the Council of Europe to monitor States’ compliance with the organisation’s anti-corruption standards. GRECO’s objective is to improve the capacity of its members to fight corruption by monitoring their compliance with Council of Europe anti-corruption standards through a dynamic process of mutual evaluation and peer pressure.  GRECO website
Hewlett Foundation: The Foundation's programmes aim to: help reduce global poverty, limit the risk of climate change, improve education for students in California and elsewhere, improve reproductive health and rights worldwide, support vibrant performing arts in our community, advance the field of philanthropy, and promote effective and transparent governance around the world.  Hewlett Foundation website
Institute for Security Studies (ISS Africa): The Institute for Security Studies is an African organisation which aims to enhance human security on the continent. It does independent and authoritative research, provides expert policy analysis and advice, and delivers practical training and technical assistance.  ISS website
Integrity Action: An international non-governmental organisation promoting an integrity approach to reduce corruption in government, business and civil society, based on education and community integrity building.  Practical skills and behaviours are learned and practiced through the alignment of accountability, competence, ethics, without corruption (i.e., with corruption controls).  Integrity Action website
International Centre for Sports Security (ICSS): Headquartered in Doha, Qatar, the ICSS aims to improve security, safety and integrity in sport by addressing real issues and providing world-leading services, skills, networks and knowledge.  (ICSS website) 
International Chamber of Commerce (ICC): The ICC provides a forum for businesses and other organisations to examine and better comprehend the nature and significance of the major shifts taking place in the world economy. ICC Rules outline the basic measures companies should take to prevent corruption. These ICC Rules are intended as a method of self-regulation by international business and constitute what is considered good commercial practice in fighting corruption.  ICC website
International Monetary Fund (IMF): The IMF is an organisation of 188 countries, working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world. The IMF works with its member countries to promote good governance and combat corruption.  IMF website
Natural Resources Governance Institute: Natural Resources Governance Institute promotes accountable and effective governance in the extractive industries.   NRGI website
Network of Public Institutes and Schools of Public Administration in Central and Eastern Europe (NISPAcee): The core of the NISPAcee activities is to promote the development of public administration disciplines and training programmes in post-Communist countries.  NISPAcee website
Omidyar Network: Omidyar Network invests in entrepreneurs around 5 key areas: Consumer Internet and Mobile, Education, Financial Inclusion, Governance & Citizen Engagement, and Property Rights.  Omidyar website
Open Government Partnership (OGP): The Open Government Partnership is a multilateral initiative that aims to secure concrete commitments from governments to promote transparency, empower citizens, fight corruption, and harness new technologies to strengthen governance.  OGP website
Open Society Foundations (OSF): The Open Society Foundations work to build vibrant and tolerant societies whose governments are accountable and open to the participation of all people.  OSF website
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD): OECD uses information on a broad range of topics to help governments foster prosperity and fight poverty through economic growth and financial stability while taking into account environmental implications of economic and social development.  OECD website
Organisation of American States (OAS):  The OAS brings together all 35 independent states of the Americas and constitutes the main political, juridical, and social governmental forum in the Hemisphere. In addition, it has granted permanent observer status to 69 states, as well as to the European Union (EU). The Organisation uses a four-pronged approach to effectively implement its essential purposes, based on its main pillars: democracy, human rights, security, and development. Fighting corruption is a key aspect of the democratic exercise of power demanded under the Inter-American Democratic Charter, and thus, is a priority issue for all OAS member states.  OAS website
Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME): The mission of PRME is to inspire and champion responsible management education, research and thought leadership globally.  PRME website
Regional Anti-Corruption Initiative for South East Europe (RAI): RAI is an intergovernmental regional organisation, which deals solely with anti-corruption issues, covering the nine member states: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia.  RAI website
Southern African Development Community (SADC): SADC is a Regional Economic Community comprising 15 Member States; Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Established in 1992, SADC is committed to Regional Integration and poverty eradication within Southern Africa through economic development and ensuring peace and security. In 2001 the SADC initiated its 'protocol against corruption'.  SADC website
Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI): Founded in 1991, the Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI) provides and promotes water wise solutions for sustainable development in five thematic areas: water governance, transboundary water management, climate change and water, the water-energy-food nexus, and water economics.  SIWI website
Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative (StAR): StAR is a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)  that supports international efforts to end safe havens for corrupt funds. StAR works with developing countries and financial centres to prevent the laundering of the proceeds of corruption and to facilitate more systematic and timely return of stolen assets.  StAR website
Transparency International (TI): An international non-governmental organisation working in the field of anti-corruption and promoting transparency and accountability in societies worldwide.  TI website
UN Global Compact: The UN Global Compact is a strategic policy initiative for businesses that are committed to aligning their operations and strategies with ten universally accepted principles in the areas of human rights, labour, environment and anti-corruption.  UN website
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA): UNECA's mandate is to promote the economic and social development of its member States, foster intra-regional integration, and promote international cooperation for Africa's development.  UNECA website
World Economic Forum: The World Economic Forum is the international institution committed to improving the state of the world through public-private cooperation. Their agenda includes the 'Partnering Against Corruption Initiative' which brings business together to work on anti-corruption and transparency issues.  World Economic Forum website


1948.  Article 19 of the United Nation's Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. 

1977.  International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) Recommendations to Combat Extortion and Bribery passed (updated 2011). The ICC Rules on Combating Corruption constitute the cornerstone of ICC's anti-corruption work, serving both as a tool for self-regulation by business and as a roadmap for governments in their efforts to fight extortion and bribery.

1977.  US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (amendments passed in 1988 and 1998). Enacted principally to prevent corporate bribery of foreign officials. This act had three major parts: (1) it required the keeping by corporations of accurate books, records, and accounts; (2) it required issuers registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission to maintain a responsible internal accounting control system; and (3) it prohibited bribery by American corporations of foreign officials.

1995.  World Bank Procurement Guidelines revised and expanded (further revisions in 1996, 1997, 1999). The purpose of these Guidelines is to inform those carrying out a project that is financed in whole or in part by a loan from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) or a credit from the International Development Association (IDA), of the arrangements to be made for procuring the goods and works (including related services) required for the project.

1995.  Treaty on the Protection of EU Financial Interests. Aims to combat fraud affecting its expenditure and revenue by taking appropriate criminal-law measures, such as criminalisation of fraud, criminal penalties, criminal liability of heads of businesses and rules on jurisdiction. 

1995.  Policy Statement by International Federation of Consultant Engineers. Includes a number of Policy Statements about issues, including corruption,  relevant to the conduct of consulting engineering firms that are particularly relevant to clients and financing agencies in developing countries. 

1996.  Rules of Conduct to Combat Extortion and Bribery adopted by the International Chamber of Commerce. These Rules of Conduct are intended as a method of self-regulation by international business, and they should also be supported by governments. Their voluntary acceptance by business enterprises will not only promote high standards of integrity in business transactions, whether between enterprises and public bodies or between enterprises themselves, but will also form a valuable defensive protection to those enterprises which are subjected to attempts at extortion.

1996.  Inter-American Convention Against Corruption approved by Organization of American States. The Inter-American Convention against Corruption, adopted in March, 1996, in Caracas, Venezuela, is the first legal instrument in this field which recognises the international reach of corruption and the need to promote and facilitate cooperation between states in order to fight against it.

1996.  UN General Assembly Declaration Against Corruption in International Commercial Transactions. The declaration calls on all nations to criminalise the bribery of foreign public officials in international business transactions, and to eliminate in those countries which still permit it, the tax deductibility of such bribes.  It is the fruit of efforts by the United States and a broad coalition of co-sponsors to urge immediate and effective international action against the corruption and bribery of foreign public officials in international commerce.

1996.  UN International Code of Conduct for Government Officials. The General Assembly, in December 1996, adopted the International Code of Conduct for Public Officials, and it requested the economic and social council and its subsidiary bodies, in particular, to follow suit.  General principles are: A public office, as defined by national law, is a position of trust, implying a duty to act in the public interest.  Therefore, the ultimate loyalty of public officials shall be to the public interests of their country as expressed through the democratic institutions of government. Public officials shall ensure that they perform their duties and functions efficiently, effectively and with integrity, in accordance with laws or administrative policies.  They shall at all times seek to ensure that public resources for which they are responsible are administered in the most effective and efficient manner. Public officials shall be attentive, fair and impartial in the performance of their functions and, in particular, in their relations with the public.  They shall at no time afford any undue preferential treatment to any group or individual or improperly discriminate against any group or individual, or otherwise abuse the power and authority vested in them.

1997.  Organization of American States (OAS) Convention Against Corruption.  Aims to promote and strengthen the development by each of the States' Parties of the mechanisms needed to prevent, detect, punish and eradicate corruption; and promote, facilitate and regulate cooperation among the States' Parties to ensure the effectiveness of measures and actions to prevent, detect, punish and eradicate  corruption in the performance of public functions and acts of corruption specifically related to such performance.

1997.  EU Convention on the Fight Against Corruption Involving Officials of the European Communities.  This Convention is designed to fight corruption involving European officials or national officials of Member States of the European Union. Member States must ensure that any act of passive or active corruption by officials is a punishable criminal offence. In serious cases penalties should include deprivation of liberty and extradition. Moreover, heads of businesses are to be declared criminally liable for active corruption by a person under their authority acting on behalf of the business entity. The establishment of an evaluation mechanism regarding anti-corruption efforts in EU member states is currently debated.

1997.  UN General Assembly Resolution urges members to ratify international instruments against corruption. This Convention urges all States and competent regional economic integration organisations to sign and ratify the United Nations Convention against Corruption as soon as possible in order to ensure its rapid entry into force.

1997.  Revised International Monetary Fund (IMF) guidelines adopted. These guidelines concern IMF issues of governance. The Guidance  that has now been adopted reflects the strong consensus among Executive Directors on the importance of good governance for economic efficiency and growth.

1997.  20 Guiding Principles for the Fight Against Corruption adopted by the Council of Europe Committee of Ministers.  On 6 November 1997, the Committee of Ministers of the CoE adopted the Twenty Guiding Principles for the Fight against Corruption. These guidelines set out a broad spectrum of anti-corruption measures, such as limiting immunity for corruption charges, denying tax deductibility for bribes, free media and preventing shielding legal persons from liability.

1997.  OECD Anti-Bribery Convention signed. The OECD Anti-Bribery Convention (officially Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions) is a convention of the OECD aimed at reducing corruption in developing countries by encouraging sanctions against bribery in international business transactions carried out by companies based in the Convention member countries. Its goal is to create a truly level playing field in today's international business environment.

1997.  Certification requirement introduced by North American Development Bank (NADB). The NADB requires anti-bribery certifications from all applicants on projects in which it lends. NADB will decline or cancel financing if a project sponsor has engaged in corrupt activity in the bidding process.

1998.  Revised Procurement Policies and Anti-Corruption Policies adopted by regional development banks (Inter-American, European, Asian, African). Since 1995, the anti-corruption movement has had success in developing a global legal framework to combat transnational bribery and corruption. A distinguishing feature of the current anti-corruption movement is its emphasis on the economic cost of corruption and the involvement of the international financial institutions such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and regional development banks, in the efforts to combat corruption. As part of their efforts to combat corruption, international financial institutions have made effective anti-corruption reforms a prerequisite for future allocation of funds. The current anti-corruption movement has also been successful in enlisting the participation of sectors of international and domestic civil society, as well as the business community, through integrity pacts and codes of conduct. 

1999.  Criminal Law & Civil Law Conventions passed by the Council of Europe. The Criminal Law Convention on Corruption is an ambitious instrument aiming at the co-ordinated criminalisation of a large number of corrupt practices. It also provides for complementary criminal law measures and for improved international co-operation in the prosecution of corruption offences. The Convention is open to the accession of non-member States. Its implementation will be monitored by the "Group of States against Corruption - GRECO", which started functioning on 1 May 1999.

1999.  Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO of European Council comes into effect). In May 1998, the Committee of Ministers authorised the establishment of the “Group of States against Corruption-GRECO” in the form of an enlarged partial agreement and on 1 May 1999, GRECO was set up by the following 17 founding members: Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden. Since, its membership has grown considerably. Membership in GRECO is not limited to Council of Europe member States. Any State which took part in the elaboration of the enlarged partial agreement may join by notifying the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.

1999.  Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention comes into effect. The OECD adopted the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions in November 1997. The Convention entered into force in February 1999 and now has 36 Parties, 2 which represent most of the main countries involved in trade and investment. The Convention only covers the liability of bribers (active bribery), not foreign officials who solicit or receive a bribe (passive bribery). The Convention requires functional equivalence among its Parties.

2000.  Council of Europe Model Code of Conduct of Government Officials. The purpose of this Code is to specify the standards of integrity and conduct to be observed by public officials, to help them meet those standards and to inform the public of the conduct it is entitled to expect of public officials.

2000.  Nyanga Declaration calling on Organisation of African States to work on repatriation of stolen assets. The Nyanga Declaration of March 2001 by 11 Transparency International African Chapters, calls for “the sealing of all known loopholes, requiring banks to open their books for inspection where there is reasonable cause to suspect illegal activity, and mandatory liquidation and repatriation of assets known to have been corruptly acquired”.  It is imperative that African governments engender and demonstrate the political will to fight corruption in a meaningful way and declares that corruption remains one of the primary hindrances to development in Africa. Thus, for as long as governments continue to pay mere lip service to anti-corruption reform, such development and, particularly, the eradication of poverty as elaborated by the Millennium Development Goals will remain unattainable.

2000.  Wolfsberg Principles on Money Laundering and Corruption adopted by major private banks. The Group came together in 2000, at the Château Wolfsberg in north-eastern Switzerland, in the company of representatives from Transparency International, including Stanley Morris, and Professor Mark Pieth of the University of Basel, to work on drafting anti-money laundering guidelines for Private Banking. The Wolfsberg Anti-Money Laundering Principles for Private Banking were subsequently published in October 2000. The main Wolfsberg Principles are: Every client has to be identified, beneficial ownership must be established for all accounts, due diligence (e.g. source of wealth / funds) must be done on all beneficial owners, information on the background of clients should be collected and recorded, principles are globally applicable.

2000.  UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime.  In its resolution 55/25 of 15 November 2000, the General Assembly adopted the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organised Crime and two of its supplementary Protocols namely: The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children and the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Air and Sea.

2001.  Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) Protocol Against Corruption. The SADC Protocol Against Corruption aims to promote and strengthen the development, within each Member State, of mechanisms needed to prevent, detect, punish and eradicate corruption in the public and private sectors. The Protocol further seeks to facilitate and regulate cooperation in matters of corruption amongst Member States and foster development and harmonisation of policies and domestic legislation related to corruption. The Protocol clearly defines ‘acts of corruption’ preventative measures, jurisdiction of Member States as well as extradition. Institutional arrangements for the implementation of this Protocol have been outlined within the document.

2002.  Transparency International (TI) Business Integrity Principles introduced and adopted by major companies. The Business Principles for Countering Bribery provide a framework for companies to develop comprehensive anti-bribery programmes. Whilst many large companies have no-bribes policies all too few implement these policies effectively. TI encourages companies to consider using the Business Principles as a starting point for developing their own anti-bribery programmes or to benchmark existing ones. 

2002.  Sarbanes Oxley Act.  The legislation came into force in 2002 and introduced major changes to the regulation of financial practice and corporate governance. Named after Senator Paul Sarbanes and Representative Michael Oxley, who were its main architects, it also set a number of deadlines for compliance. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act is arranged into eleven titles. As far as compliance is concerned, the most important sections within these are often considered to be 302, 401, 404, 409, 802 and 906.

2003.  Introduction of Judicial Integrity Standard by group of Chief Justices, endorsed by World Court. The Bangalore Principles of Judicial Conduct were annexed to the report presented to the fifty-ninth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights in April 2003 by the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Independence of Judges and Lawyers, Dato Param Cumaraswamy. On 29 April 2003, the Commission unanimously adopted resolution 2003/43 which noted the Bangalore Principles of Judicial Conduct and brought those Principles "to the attention of Member States, the relevant United Nations organs and intergovernmental and nongovernmental organisations for their consideration".

2003.  Council of Europe Uniform Regulations against Corruption in the course of Funding Political Parties and Election Campaigns.  This important legal instrument, the first of its kind at an international level, is the culmination of extensive exploratory, analytical and political work of different Council of Europe bodies, which has progressively led to the adoption of common standards for the setting-up of transparent systems for the funding of political parties in an effort to prevent corruption.

2004.  United Nations (UN) Convention Against Corruption. The Convention introduced a new fundamental principle, as well as a framework for stronger cooperation between States to prevent and detect corruption and to return the proceeds. Corrupt officials will in future find fewer ways to hide their illicit gains. This is a particularly important issue for many developing countries where corrupt high officials have plundered the national wealth and where new governments badly need resources to reconstruct and rehabilitate their societies. The purposes of this Convention are: (a) To promote and strengthen measures to prevent and combat corruption more efficiently and effectively; (b) To promote, facilitate and support international cooperation and technical assistance in the prevention of and fight against corruption, including in asset recovery; and (c) To promote integrity, accountability and proper management of public affairs and public property.

2005.  United Nations Convention against Corruption entered into force. The UNCAC is the first anti-corruption convention that is truly global. It takes a comprehensive approach to the corruption problem, as a basis for effectively preventing and combating corruption.

2008.  The European Partners Against Corruption (EPAC) agreed to set up the working group, Common Standards and Best Practice for Anti-Corruption Authorities The network was set up to improve cooperation between authorities mandated with the prevention of and fight against corruption in the European Union, as well as to foster closer relations between Member States and the European institutions. It affords a platform for the exchange of EU-related information on effective measures and experiences, identifying opportunities, and collaboration in developing common strategies and high professional standards.

2009.  OECD Anti-Bribery Recommendation.  The Recommendation was adopted by the OECD in order to enhance the ability of the States' Parties to the Anti-Bribery Convention to prevent, detect and investigate allegations of foreign bribery and includes the Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. 

2010.  The UK Bribery Act.  The Act was passed on 8 April 2010 and came into effect on 1 July 2011. It is of fundamental importance to all commercial organisations that either operate or are registered in the UK. The Act has reformed the criminal law to provide a modern and comprehensive scheme of bribery offences to enable courts and prosecutors to respond more effectively to bribery, wherever it occurs. It is a far-reaching piece of legislation with some provisions that are more extensive than equivalent laws elsewhere including the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). It applies to bribery in both the private and the public sectors.

2013.  UK Deferred Prosecution Agreements (DPAs).  DPAs were introduced in Schedule 17 of the Crime and Courts Act 2013. Under a DPA a prosecutor charges a company with a criminal offence but proceedings are automatically suspended. The company agrees to a number of conditions, such as paying a financial penalty, paying compensation and co-operating with future prosecutions of individuals. If the company does not honour the conditions, the prosecution may resume. DPAs can be used for fraud, bribery and other economic crime. They apply to organisations, not individuals. A DPA could be appropriate where the public interest is not best served by mounting a prosecution. Entering into a DPA will be a transparent public event and the process will be supervised by a judge.